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Important industrial catalysis

The Haber-Bosch process

Catalytic synthesis of ammonia

$N_2+3H_2\longrightarrow 2NH_3$ Catalysts: Sur $Fe$: $K_2O$, $Al_2O_3$

Original device of Fritz Haber

The contact process

Catalytic synthesis of sulfuric acid

$2SO_2$ $+$ $O_2$ $\longrightarrow$ $2SO_3$ $2SO_3$ $+$ $H_2O\longrightarrow$ $2H_2SO_4$ Catalyst: $V_2O_5$

The syngas ($CO$ / $ H_2$)

Catalytic synthesis of methanol

$CO$ $+$ $2H_2$ $\longrightarrow$ $CH_3OH$ Catalysts: $Cu$,$ZnO$,$Al_2O_3$

Syngas can be produced from coal, natural gas, oil or biomass. Petrol is sometimes blended with methanol:

The Ostwald process

Catalytic synthesis of nitric acid

$4NH_3$ $+$ $5O_2$ $\longrightarrow$ $4NO$ $+$ $6H_2O$ $4NO$ $+$ $3O_2$ $+$ $2H_2O$ $\longrightarrow$ $4HNO_3$ Catalysts: Platinum $Pt$, Rhodium $Rh$