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Controlled oxidation of aldehydes and ketones

Oxidation of ethanal in acidic medium

Oxidation product is the ethanoic acid. Ethanal and ethanoic acid have identical oxidation numbers of all corresponding atoms, except those of C:

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Reminder: Oxidation numbers are determined by attributing to the more electronegative atoms all of the electrons in the bond, and considering the dummy load thus obtained.

Partial controlled oxidation sytem of aldehydes in acidic medium

Aldehyde $\Rightarrow$ carboxylic acid $RCHO$ $-$ $2e^-$ $+$ $H_2O$ $\rightarrow$ $RCOOH$ $+$ $2H^+$

Controlled oxidation of ethanal in basic medium

Product is the ethanoate ion. Ethanal and ethanoate ion have identical oxidation numbers of all corresponding atoms, except those of C:

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Partial controlled oxidation sytem of aldehydes in basic medium

Aldehyde $\Rightarrow$ carboxylate $RCHO$ $-$ $2e^-$ $+$ $3OH^-$ $\rightarrow$ $RCOO^-$ $+$ $2H_2O$

Controlled oxidation of acetone (propanone)

Under stringent conditions, oxidation occurs with rupture of the molecule, otherwise there is no oxidation.

Ketones do not undergo controlled oxidation.